Conscience Oath Terms-World Credit Organization
4.2 Oath of conscience clause
4.2.1 The concept of the Oath of Conscience clause
The Oath of Conscience is a free credit service, people can use the Oath of Conscience without paying copyright fees. Applicable standards: "ICE8000 Oath of Conscience Terms and Oath of Conscience Standards" (https://www.ice8000.org/acnhwgc/19.htm).
1. Oath of conscience refers to an oath solemnly made with one's own conscience, personality, belief, health, and life.
Second, the clauses of the oath of conscience refer to the clauses with the content of the oath of conscience.
Third, agreeing to the terms of the oath of conscience refers to the terms that people agree on in the form of contracts with the content of the oath of conscience.
Fourth, the oath of conscience means that people solemnly read the terms of the oath of conscience under the supervision of relevant personnel.
4.2.2 Contents of the Oath of Conscience
An effective Oath of Conscience clause should include the following three parts:
1. Introduction to the oath
The content is: "I am **, I am ** (indicating my identity, which should be related to the content of the second part, if the identity has already been stated or is self-evident, this sentence can be omitted), I represent myself Conscience, personality, belief, health, life, solemnly make the following oath (commitment, guarantee): ". Clauses that are consistent with the semantics of the content and have no ambiguity in expression are valid oath introductions. Taking internal complaints as an example, the following sentence is recommended as text:
1. If the complainant is an individual without a representative, the oath introduction can generally be: "I **, as the complainant, I solemnly make the following oath with my conscience, personality, belief, health, and life:" ; If there is an agent, the introduction of the oath can generally be: "I**, as the authorized agent of the complainant, on behalf of the complainant, solemnly make the following oath (or : guarantee, etc.): ".
2. If the complainant is a unit, the introduction of the oath can generally be: "I **, as the authorized handler and agent of the complainant, represent the complainant, and at the same time use my conscience, personality, belief, health, Life, solemnly make the following oath (or: guarantee, etc.): ".
3. The content of the oath can also be strengthened, for example: with one's own conscience, personality, belief, and the health and life of oneself and future generations, make the following oath (or: guarantee, etc.).
II. Guarantee or Commitment
The content of this part refers to the items guaranteed or promised by the swearer, such as: "I guarantee that the relevant information provided is true"; another example: "I promise to perform the contractual obligations in good faith".
Third, the oath
If the party concerned is a unit, the oath-taker may be the unit's legal representative (actual controller) or/and authorized agent or/and authorized manager or/and insider.
4.2.3 The role of the oath of conscience clause
The terms of the oath of conscience are the constraints on the heart of the oath-taker. It can closely link specific behavior requirements with people's beliefs, thereby strengthening people's internal constraints, controlling the occurrence of their own bad behavior, and letting people stay in the dark. Still doing bright things.
If divided according to the degree of information symmetry, things can be divided into: information symmetry, information incomplete symmetry, and information absolute asymmetry. In the case of absolute asymmetry of information, there will be things known by heaven, earth, and oneself. In such matters, external constraints such as laws, morals, and contracts have lost their effect. Only internal constraints can promote people to be bright. things. For example: Zhang San and Li Si picked up a wallet of the same amount on an uninhabited alley at the same time. Zhang San once swore to pick up the money, but Li Si did not make the oath. Then under the same conditions, it is possible for Zhang San to hand over the money to the owner. Sex will be higher than Li Si.
Combined with the contents of previous chapters , we can think that the clause of the oath of conscience can be prevented to a certain extent, because the information is absolutely not Moral hazard and moral torture caused by symmetry.
Generally, it can be considered that the moral hazard and moral torture caused by the asymmetry of rewards and punishments can be prevented by adjusting and continuously improving the rewards and punishments system. The moral hazard and moral torture caused by the asymmetry of rights and responsibilities can be prevented by adjusting and continuously improving the rights and responsibilities system and contracts. When the information cannot be symmetrical, generally only the clause of the oath of conscience can be used to prevent the moral hazard and moral torture caused by the absolute asymmetry of information.
The application of the Oath of Conscience clause by the World Credit Organization [WCO] also demonstrates its usefulness. On September 12, 2008, the World Credit Organization [WCO] announced the "ICE8000 Quick Credit Evaluation Standard". According to this standard, people can publish information anonymously and express their opinions on relevant units very conveniently. However, many people violate the standard rules and use insulting and abusive words when expressing their opinions anonymously. Beginning on December 20, 2008, the World Credit Organization [WCO] prominently reminded and required the publishers to declare the terms of the oath of conscience on the informal credit information release webpage.
4.2.4 Analysis of the function of the oath of conscience clause
We can harmonize people's self-interested nature and moral nature by designing a good conscience oath for the following reasons:
1. The content of a good conscience oath will not violate morality, otherwise, it will not be called good.
2. If the oath taker thinks that he will be punished by heaven for violating his oath of conscience, then, out of self-interest, he is not willing to violate his oath of conscience.
When there is information asymmetry in a certain transaction, the following methods can be used to solve the moral hazard and moral torture caused by absolute information asymmetry:
1. When employing people, choose a person with moral character or religious belief as the executor of the matter;
Second, design an appropriate and good conscience oath clause;
3. Let the executor take an oath of conscience for the terms of the oath of conscience;
4. According to other chapters of this book, the executor can also be required to establish an ICE8000 personal credit file to increase the cost of breaking his trust (here, it can be called the cost of the incident).
4.2.5 Analysis of the limitations of the role of the oath of conscience clause
For people of no faith, especially absolute atheists, the Oath of Conscience clause is of less use.
For people who are morally obliterated and have no conscience, the vow of conscience clause has less effect.
For people who have neither faith nor morals, the oath of conscience clause may not work. However, such extreme figures are a minority after all.
Here, let’s talk about religion by the way. We can’t simply regard religion as superstition. Religion is also a major part of human civilization, and it contributes a lot to human universal values. Some scholars in Western countries also classify religion as a science, juxtaposing it with social science and natural science. Currently, there are far more religious believers in the world than non-religious people. In Baidu, search with "how many people believe in religions in the world", and the web page shows: Among the world's population, including Christianity, Catholicism, and Orthodox Christianity, there are 1.96599 billion Christians in a broad sense. Accounting for 33.15% of the world's population. There are 1.17933 billion Muslims, accounting for 18.89% of the world's population. There are 767.42 million Hindus who account for 11.94% of the world's population. There are 356.88 million Buddhists, accounting for 5.02% of the world's population. There are 244.16 million tribal religions, accounting for 4.12% of the total population. There are 776.67 million people who have no belief, accounting for 13.10%.
There are also statistics: 95.7% of the Nobel Prize winners have religious beliefs; 100% of the US presidents have religious beliefs.
Almost all the people in western developed countries believe in religion, and the number of non-believers is very small. In Western countries, although it is purely personal freedom to have religious beliefs, people without religious beliefs are often considered to be: not bound by religious norms, have no moral bottom line, and are more likely to do bad things. In our country, with the deepening of reform and opening up, more and more business people or highly educated people are beginning to believe in religion. We can imagine that for a devout Christian believer, it is difficult for him to intentionally add harmful substances to food and then sell it.
4.2.6 Innovation of the Oath of Conscience Clause
The author has compared the contents of many oaths, and the innovation of the oath of conscience clause lies in:
1. It adds conscience, personality, belief, health, and life to the oath, which strengthens the oath.
Second, it adds the traditional Chinese "swearing" method to the oath, which strengthens its restraint on people without faith and conscience.
4.2.7 Agreement on the terms of the oath of conscience
1. Contract law
The terms of the oath of conscience are written into the contract as the content of the contract after negotiation between the parties, or as a subsidiary contract of the main contract.
For example: Zhang San, as the legal representative of Party A, represents Party A, and guarantees with his own conscience, personality, belief, health, and life: Party A strictly abides by the terms of this contract.
Li Si, as the legal representative of Party B of the contract, represents Party B, and guarantees with his own conscience, personality, belief, health, and life: Party B strictly abides by the terms of this contract.
Second, unilateral declaration method
The parties agree on the terms of the oath of conscience in a unilateral statement, such as:
I am Liu Cheng, as Liu Hua's father, with my own conscience, personality, belief, health, and life guarantee: to educate Liu Hua on integrity.
Third, the default agreement
Acquiescence agreement is an agreement method based on assumptions. If the assumptions are met, the terms of the oath of conscience will be declared by the parties by default.
For example, the confidentiality statement on the cover of some confidential documents:
By reading this document, you are deemed to have made the following oath. As the reader of this document, I solemnly swear by my conscience, personality, belief, health, and life as follows:
1. I promise not to submit this document to units or individuals outside the scope of dissemination;
2. I promise not to delete this pledge of conscience;
3. I guarantee that I am an authorized reader within the scope of authorized dissemination.
4.2.8 Oath of Conscience
The oath of conscience means that people solemnly read the terms of the oath of conscience under the supervision of relevant personnel. The ceremony of taking an oath of conscience is clearly stipulated in the "ICE8000 Oath of Conscience Terms and Conditions and Standards for Oath of Conscience". The ceremony of the oath of conscience is more formal, so its psychological strengthening effect on the oath-taker is greater than that of the agreed oath of conscience. Since 2010, the World Credit Organization [WCO] has required an oath of conscience when joining the membership, applying for authorization for the first time, and applying for practice registration for the first time.
1. Moderator and Supervisor
The oath of conscience ceremony is presided over by a supervisor. The following personnel are qualified to be supervisors of the oath of conscience:
(1) Religious personnel (such as: priests, etc.);
Second, the procedure of the oath of conscience
(1) Determine and print the terms of the Oath of Conscience.
(2) The oath taker raises his right hand and left hand to caress the following sacred objects:
1. If the person making the oath has a clear religious belief, the religious books (such as the Bible, the Koran, etc.) of his belief are his sacred objects;
2. If the person making the oath does not have a clear religious belief, the paper marked with the four words "parent and child" is its sacred object.
(3) The supervisor solemnly reads the terms of the oath of conscience sentence by sentence, and the oath taker solemnly reads along.
(4) The swearing-in person signs the pledge of conscience document.(5) The supervisor signs the vow of conscience document, and indicates the type of sacred object pressed by the left hand. If there are explanations, they can be noted together.
The above content is excerpted from "Introduction to ICE8000 Credit Knowledge" (written by Fang Bangjian, free to use, but please indicate the source)